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Keeping It Green

(There's No Vaccine to Fight Climate Change)

  • Fridays For Future

    FFF is a global climate strike movement that started in August 2018, when 15-year-old Greta Thunberg began a school strike for climate. In the three weeks leading up to the Swedish election, she sat outside Swedish Parliament every school day, demanding urgent action on the climate crisis. She was tired of society’s unwillingness to see the climate crisis for what it is: a crisis.

    Read more about what they do by clicking now.

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    Climate Change

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    Page Updated:
    September 14, 2021


  •  Climate Change Opinion Maps
  •  Of Climate Change Interest
  • Climate Change in SW Florida
  • Climate Crisis Essay
  • Climate Reality Project
  • Planet A: DW's YouTube Channel
  • Degrees Of Change
  • How Hot is Your Town?
  • Documentaries to See
  • The Greenhouse Effect
  • The Hot 10 Climte Songs
  • Planet A:
    Climate Change YouTube Channel
  • The Causes & Consequences

    • The Approaches            • Resources

    • Insights From Climate Science

    •  Easily Understood Climate Change Presentation

    • CNN’s Exceptional Climate Journalism
  • Where You Stand Survey
  • Show it With Colors
  • Visit NYC's Climate Museum
  • A Climate Crisis Haiku
  • Sea Level Rise Viewer
  • Your City's CC Future

  • Of Possible Climate Change Interest


  • Add Climate Change to the Afghanistan's Woes
  • Global Warming Vs. Climate Change:
    Questions Answered
  • Bad Future, Better Future
  • Tick Tock Goes the Climate Clock
  • Alaska: 4th National Climate Assessment
  • Paying Farmers to Bury Carbon Pollution In Soil
  • Not Your Daddy's Yellowstone
  • Looming Water Crisis Affects 25% of Humankind
  • Oil Companies Push For a Carbon Tax
  • The Rapid Thawing of the Permafrost Layer
  • The Atlas The USDA Forgot to Delete
  • AT&T Maps Out Climate Change Dangers
  • Can We Reverse Climate Emissions?
  • The Human Element Documentary
  • Climate Change and Tornado Effects
  • 6 Week Lessons on Climate Solutions
  • Must-See Climate Change Films
  • Taking a Leaf Out of Thoreau’s Book
  • Download a Climate Change Free eBook
  • It's Never Too Late to Change Your Mind
  • Defending the Climate Against Deniers
  • Coastal Cities That Can Disappear
  • Asia's Vital Rivers
  • Are Climate Change Debates Debatable?
  • Graph: The Relentless Rise in CO2
  • A Solar Solution For Desalination
  • Sarasota Climate Change Meet Up
  • Youth Climate Lawsuit
  • Engaging U.S. Latinos on Climate Changee
  • Not a Happy Easter for This Island
  • What Should Know About Asia's Rivers
  • Big Tech Climate Policy
  • The Living Breakwaters Project
  • A Massive Lake In Antarctica Vanished In Days
  • Louisiana's 2023 Master Plan to Save Its Coast
  • What Keeps Climate Scientists Awake at Night?
  • The Amazon Was Once the Lungs of the Planet
  • Climate Change and Mercury Toxicity
  • Great Barrier Reef's Great Challenge
  • What the Melting Glaciers Really Indicate
  • Artificial Glaciers To the Rescue!
  • Copenhagen Copes With Climate Change
  • It's Our Planet (While We Still Have It)
  • Greenhouse Gasses and Climate Reality
  • The Carbon Fee & Dividend Act
  • What About 'No Glacier' National Park?
  • Family Planning & Climate Change
  • A Conversation with “Her Deepness”
  • Oh, the Seas, They Are Arising
  • The Difference Between 2C and 1.5C of Warming
  • Climate Change by Air, Land and Sea
  • Climate Change Arguments Through Cartoons
  • Kelp: The Climate-Friendly Vegetable
  • Biodiversity at the The Climate Law Institute
  • Climate Change in Photographs
  • Global CO2 Levels in Weather Reporting
  • The Great Climate Migration
  • PrpPublica Support for the Above Article
  • San Francisco Wall Not to Keep Mexicans Out
  • Some Times, Michael Moore Should Just Stop
  • Global Warming's Six Americas
  • Lebanon Flooding Affecting Refugees
  • Climate Perspective-Explaining Extreme Events
  • Learn How Your State Makes Electricity
  • • The Developement of Self-Destructing Plastic
    It Happened 50 Years Ago

    Aug. 7, 2021 (ScienceNews) -Public indignation over litter and garbage has caused industry to ask chemists whether self-destroying, or quickly degradable, plastics might be devised to replace indestructible … glass, aluminum and plastics, which comprise the largest segment of consumer waste.Chemist James Guillet and his team … devised a self-destroying plastic that is about ready for marketing — a wrapping paper that disintegrates in about a month.

    Guillet’s work on polymers that degrade via light helped pave the way for their wider commercial use. But these materials may have created more problems than they solved. Most plastics wind up in landfills where the materials don’t get enough light to degrade as intended. Plastics that do break down turn into microscopic pieces that can wind up in ecosystems and harm animals. Scientists are trying to make more eco-friendly plastics, such as compostable plastics that can be totally broken down with enzymes (

  • Ask What Can We Do for the Climate
  • Climate Change in the Eyes of he Public
  • Your State's Climate Change Risk
  • Climate Hub (from the NY Times)
  • Carbon Offsets Can Fight Climate Change
  • Climate Change and Real Estate Values"
  • Fight Climate Change: Make Your Own Glacier
  • 6 Climate Leaders Tell Their Story
  • Does Sweden Have a Climate Change Solution,?
  • Heat,Hunger War: Force African's Road on Fire
  • Can Scotland’s Rising Seas Heritage Be Saved?
  • Climavore (Good-Tasting Conservation)
  • The Climate Refugee - A Growing Class
  • How Flood-Vulnerable Is Miami?
  • How to Answer a Climate Skeptic
  • Carrots & Sticks of Proposed Climate Policy
  • Food and Climate Change
  • Americans and Climate Change Thinking
  • How Many Are Climate Change Believers
  • U.S. Corporations Signing On to Paris Accords
  • Trust the Weather Man on Climate Issues?
  • 20 Ways to Reduce Our Carbon Footprint
  • Here’s a Weather Forecast for 2100
  • Climate Change’s Affect on American Birds
  • U.S. Cities Climate Change Litigation
  • A Louisiana Village Fights for Time
  • The Role of Tropical Forests
  • The Importance of Mangroves
  • The Climate Accountability Scorecard
  • Predicting San Francisco in 2075
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    Climate Change / Global Warming News Stories

    (For the past 2 months)
    • • Climate Change Could Force Millions to Move
      Report Looks at Possible
      Three-Decade Scenarios

      Sep. 14, 2021, (Herald-Tribune), Originally published in the Associated Press- Climate change could push more than 200 million people to leave their homes in the next three decades and create migration hot spots unless urgent action is taken to reduce global emissions and bridge the development gap, a World Bank report has found.

      The second part of the Groundswell report published Monday examined how the impacts of slow-onset climate change such as water scarcity, decreasing crop productivity and rising sea levels could lead to millions of what it describes as “climate migrants” by 2050 under three different scenarios with varying degrees of climate action and development.

    • • The Fossil Fuel Industry Has Left Louisiana Defenseless
      It Has Caused
      Louisiana's Coast to Disappear

      Sep. 10, 2021, (GIZMODO), By Virginia Hanusik -I started photographing the architecture and landscape of South Louisiana in 2014, long after the fossil fuel industry’s hold on the region began. Most of my work focuses on the infrastructure of this unique area as a means to convey how we’ve altered the land—and the unequal protection this infrastructure provides.

      When Hurricane Ida made landfall, it did so at that marsh I was photographing under LA-1. While the storm itself spun up in a manner of days, its impacts were decades in the making. With peak wind gusts of 172 mph (277 kph) recorded and 12 feet (4 meters) of storm surge at Port Fourchon, Ida caused catastrophic damage. That includes the community of Grand Isle, where the mayor said 100% of all structures on the island were damaged with 40% destroyed or nearly destroyed.

    • • Earth’s Tipping Points Could Be Closer than We Think
      Will Our Current Plans Work?

      Sep. 9, 2021, (The Guardian), Opinion by George Monbiot -If there’s one thing we know about climate breakdown, it’s that it will not be linear, smooth or gradual. Just as one continental plate might push beneath another in sudden fits and starts, causing periodic earthquakes and tsunamis, our atmospheric systems will absorb the stress for a while, then suddenly shift. Yet, everywhere, the programs designed to avert it are linear, smooth and gradual.

      Current plans to avoid catastrophe would work in a simple system like a washbasin, in which you can close the tap until the inflow is less than the outflow. But they are less likely to work in complex systems, such as the atmosphere, oceans and biosphere.

    • • Keep the Oil in the Soil to Meet Climate Targets
      The Time for Real Energy
      Transition Discussion Is Now

      Sep. 9, 2021, (ZME Science)-After decades of growth, the rate of production and use of fossil fuels will need to reverse and decline very rapidly to meet internationally agreed climate goals, according to a new study.

      Researchers found that nearly 60% of proven oil and gas reserves and almost 90% of coal reserves have to remain on the ground in order to limit global warming below 1.5ºC compared to pre-industrial levels – one of the targets included in the 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change signed by almost every country.

    • • Corals Put Up a Fight Against Climate Change
      They're More Resiliant than We Thought

      Sep. 8, 2021, (ZME Science)-Climate change is rapidly intensifying pressure on biodiversity around the globe and, particularly, on coral reefs. But despite dramatic losses at the hand of bleaching events, the future of reefs may not be as bleak as we imagined. In two new studies, researchers have discovered that corals may be able to cope with climate change better than we thought, even passing resilience to their offspring.

    • • A Case for Carbon Pricing
      John Kerry: a Carbon Price
      is “on the Table Being Examined”

      Sep. 8, 2021, (Cleveland Plain Dealer)-Last week, Hurricane Ida’s “relentless rain” stunned the East Coast as dozens drowned in death-trap cars and basement apartments. This summer, devastating floods, wildfires, and heat waves killed hundreds in China, the Pacific Northwest, Canada and elsewhere.

      Closer to home, it’s only a matter of time, say climate scientists, before the “overwhelming” downpours that hampered spring plantings in Northeast Ohio in 2019 wreak even more havoc. There’s no longer any refuge from global warming anywhere.

    • • How Many People Will Carbon Dioxide Kill?
      The Unwelcome Answer: Too Many

      Sep. 8, 2021, (ZME Science)-Oftentimes, when we talk about climate change, it seems like something abstract and hard to quantify, and in some ways, it is. But climate change, in addition to all the damage it will cause, will kill people — a lot of them, according to a new study.

      Study author R. Daniel Bressler, a PhD candidate at Columbia University’s Earth Institute and the university’s School of Public and International Affairs looked at how we calculate the cost of carbon and saw a gap. There wasn’t a clear way of translating the extra carbon in the atmosphere to human lives. He moved to address that.

    • • Is the U.S. Ready for Climate Change?
      The Limits of Adapting To Climate Change

      Sep. 8, 2021, (NY Times Climate Forward)-The climate disasters have been relentless this summer. Hurricane Ida took down the power grid in New Orleans, where more than 300,000 households remain without electricity as of Wednesday.

      A few days later, Ida dumped 7 inches of rain on New York City, drowning people in their basements and paralyzing the subways. Deadly heat waves scorched the Pacific Northwest, a massive wildfire spurred residents to evacuate South Lake Tahoe and flash floods devastated Tennessee.

    • • Health Science Journals Unite and Call for Ambitious Climate Action
      It's a Health Problem by Now,
      Later May be Too Late

      Sep. 6, 2021, (ZME Science)-More than 200 health journals called on governments to take action on the climate crisis as targets to reduce emissions are still not enough to limit global warming to two degrees Celsius (a target that many already see as not ambitious enough).

      It’s an unprecedented move — the first time such a large number of publications have come together to make the same statement, which shows how severe the situation has become. It’s not just a climate crisis, it’s a health crisis.

    • • The Climate Impact of a Transatlantic Flight
      Could Cost Global
      Economy $3,000 for Each Flight

      Sep. 6, 2021, (The Guardian)-A return flight from the UK to New York could cost the global economy more than $3,000 (£2,170) in the long run, owing to the effects of the climate crisis, according to a report.

      Researchers examined the economic cost of the climate crisis and found it would cut about 37% from global GDP this century, more than twice the drop experienced in the Great Depression.

      For every tonne of carbon dioxide emitted, the global economy would be $3,000 worse off by the end of the century, they estimated.

    • • How Prepared is the Public Utilities Infrastructure?
      Your Utility Should Expect the Unexpected

      Sep. 4, 2021, (Energy Central), -The flooding in New York City, the high winds in New Orleans, and the winter Freeze in Texas usher in a new reality for the electric industry, showing how outdated its infrastructure has become and how it has to expect the unexpected.

      Resilience is the word used by utilities to describe their ability to speedily restore power, to bounce back after an outage. This year, resilience has been put to the test with major challenges affecting electric utilities from coast to coast. Mostly, the results have been disappointing to catastrophic.

    • • Utilities Should Expect the Unexpected
      It's On the Way

      Sep. 4, 2021, (Energy Central)-The flooding in New York City, the high winds in New Orleans, and the winter Freeze in Texas usher in a new reality for the electric industry, showing how outdated its infrastructure has become and how it has to expect the unexpected.

      Resilience is the word used by utilities to describe their ability to speedily restore power, to bounce back after an outage. This year, resilience has been put to the test with major challenges affecting electric utilities from coast to coast. Mostly, the results have been disappointing to catastrophic.

    • • Climate Crisis Likely Creating Extreme Winter Weather Events
      Arctic Change Increased Chances of
      Tightly Spinning Winds Above North
      Pole, Boosting Weather Extremes

      Sep. 2, 2021, (The Guardian)-The climate crisis has not only been leaving deadly heatwaves and more destructive hurricanes in its wake, but also probably creating extreme winter weather events, according to a new report released on Thursday by the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s journal Science.

      Climate change has long been associated with such extreme weather events as the hurricane that just struck the Gulf coast over the weekend, knocking out power for over a million people and leaving several people dead, and the deadly heatwaves across the Pacific north-west earlier this summer.

    • • Weather Disasters: The Good and the Bad News
      Numbers Have Soared,
      but Deaths are Down

      Sep. 2, 2021, (Herald-Tribune)-Weather disasters are striking the world four to five times more often and causing seven times more damage than in the 1970s, the United Nations weather agency reports.

      But these disasters are killing far fewer people. In the 1970s and ’80s, they killed an average of about 170 people a day worldwide. In the 2010s, that dropped to about 40 per day, the World Meteorological Organization said in a report Wednesday that looks at more than 11,000 weather disasters in the past half-century.

    • • How Scientists Predict Climate Scenarios
      Enter the World of
      Accurate Climate Models

      Sep. 1, 2021, (ZME Science)-Our planet’s climate is an enormously complex topic. Sure, the underlying principles are straightforward, but incorporating the interplay between all the different elements is a very hard task. To assess the large-scale situation, researchers often turn to something called climate models.

      A climate model is a quantitative simulation of the elements in our planet’s climate. When researchers develop models, they divide the planet into a grid, apply known equations from the parameters they consider, and “run” the model to evaluate the results. Models can be more or less detailed, can extend into the past or into the future, and can be localized or planetary.

      The article contain graphs, which you can see by clicking now.

    • • A Giant Warm Patch in the Gulf
      of Mexico Exascerbated Hurricane Ida
      The Article Tells the Story

      Aug. 31, 2021, (THE CONVERSATION)-As Hurricane Ida headed into the Gulf of Mexico, a team of scientists was closely watching a giant, slowly swirling pool of warm water directly ahead in its path.

      That warm pool, an eddy, was a warning sign. It was around 125 miles (200 kilometers) across. And it was about to give Ida the power boost that in the span of less than 24 hours would turn it from a weak hurricane into the dangerous Category 4 storm that slammed into Louisiana just outside New Orleans on Aug. 29, 2021.

    • • Rain Fell for the First Time on Greenland’s Summit
      It Turns Out What Happens
      in Greenland Doesn’t Stay in Greenland

      Aug. 30, 2021, (Sierra Magazine)-Earlier this month, instead of snow, rain fell on Greenland’s tallest point. It was the first time on record, and it was only the fourth time that temperatures there—an ice-capped expanse two miles above sea level, located in the very center of the Arctic island’s interior—had risen above freezing. For two days following the rain, 337,000 square miles of the territory’s ice sheet experienced surface melting. In total, 7 billion tons of water flooded the summit.

      That rain has fallen in one of Earth’s most reliably frozen regions is an “unprecedented shock to the system,” says John Walsh, a professor at the University of Alaska Fairbanks and a scientist with the International Arctic Research Center.

    • • War and Warming Collide in Afghanistan
      Hasn't Afghanistan Suffered Enough?

      Aug. 30, 2021, (NY Times Climate Forward)-Parts of Afghanistan have warmed twice as much as the global average. Spring rains have declined, most worryingly in some of the country’s most important farmland. Droughts are more frequent in vast swaths of the country, including a punishing dry spell now in the north and west, the second in three years.

      Afghanistan embodies a new breed of international crisis, where the hazards of war collide with the hazards of climate change, creating a nightmarish feedback loop that punishes some of the world’s most vulnerable people and destroys their countries’ ability to cope.

    • • Ida Hit One of the Country’s Biggest Oil and Chemical Hubs
      Past Hurricanes Have Caused Toxic Spills

      Aug. 30, 2021, (NY Times Climate Forward)-The most intense hurricane on record to strike Louisiana swept through one of the nation’s largest chemical, petroleum and natural gas hubs. And while it may take days or weeks for the full extent of the storm’s impact to become clear, early reports of damage have heightened concerns over the vulnerability of the region’s fossil fuel infrastructure to intensifying storms.

      On Monday, officials warned that floodwaters had spilled over a temporary levee erected near a Phillips 66 refinery in Plaquemines, the state’s southernmost parish and one of most severely affected by Hurricane Katrina 16 years ago...

    • • Climate Change and Hurricanes
      They're Close Relatives

      Aug. 29, 2021, (NY Times Climate Forward)-Hurricane Ida intensified overnight, becoming a Category 4 storm over the course of just a few hours. The rapid increase in strength raises questions about how much climate change is affecting hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean.

      While researchers can’t say for sure whether human-caused climate change will mean longer or more active hurricane seasons in the future, there is broad agreement on one thing: Global warming is changing storms.

    • • Simpler Ways Needed to Discuss Climate Change
      There's Too Much Jargon and
      People are Getting Confused

      Aug. 27, 2021, (ZME Science)-There’s a gap between what scientists are saying on climate change and what the public is actually understanding, a sobering new study finds. US residents were found to struggle to comprehend the most frequently used terms by scientists on climate change, suggesting the need for a much simpler language instead.

    • • Road in Denali National Park Sinking 10 Inches a Day
      Creeping Landslide is the Cause

      Aug. 27, 2021, (GIZMODO)- A landslide in Alaska’s iconic Denali National Park has closed the only road through the park and shut down activity weeks ahead of the normal end of tourist season. The cause: Rapidly thawing permafrost triggered a landslide that made the road too unstable to use.

      The National Park Service said that the idyllically named Pretty Rocks Landslide, a known landslide the park’s road traverses en route to Polychrome Overlook, had become too dangerous for travel. Pretty Rocks sits about halfway along the 92-mile (148-kilometer) road that cuts across the 6-million-acre park. Thawing permafrost has been causing the road there to slowly drop for decades, but it has sped up to untenable rates this summer.

    • • The Future of Hydro-power
      Can Hydropower Withstand
      a Future of Extreme Weather?

      Aug. 27, 2021, (DW News)- Hydropower has long been seen as a reliable renewable energy source. But during drought and heavy rain, hydropower plants often come to a standstill. Will climate change spell the end for this clean energy alternative?

    • • Hot Blog in New Zealand Causes South American Drought
      A Vast Patch Of Warm Water Has
      Produced a Dry Ridge Of High Pressure
      Across The South Pacific, Blocking
      Storms From Reaching Chile

      Aug. 26, 2021, (The Guardian)-A vast patch of warming water off the coast of New Zealand – referred to as a “warming blob” – has contributed to a decade long drought affecting parts of South America, according to scientists.

      Researchers based in New Zealand and Chile have examined the rapidly warming hot blob which rose to prominence in 2019 after spikes in water temperature of up to 6C were recorded.

    • • The Colorado River is Drying Up
      40 Million People Rely On It

      Aug. 27, 2021 (NY Times Sunday Review),-Lake Mead, a reservoir formed by the construction of the Hoover Dam in the 1930s, is one of the most important pieces of infrastructure on the Colorado River, supplying fresh water to Nevada, California, Arizona and Mexico. The reservoir hasn’t been full since 1983. In 2000, it began a steady decline caused by epochal drought. On my visit in 2015, the lake was just about 40 percent full.

      A chalky ring on the surrounding cliffs marked where the waterline once reached, like the residue on an empty bathtub. The tunnel far below represented Nevada’s latest salvo in a simmering water war: the construction of a $1.4 billion drainage hole to ensure that if the lake ever ran dry, Las Vegas could get the very last drop.

    • • The First Climate Change Famine is Here
      Madagascar is the Victim

      Aug. 25, 2021 (ZME Science),-Thousands of people in Madagascar are suffering “catastrophic” levels of hunger and food insecurity as the country is hit by the worst drought seen in four decades, devastating isolated farming communities in the south. The situation could even worsen soon as Madagascar enters the traditional “lean season” before the harvest.

      Experts believe this is the first famine to be driven entirely by climate change.

    • • The Price Ranchers Pay for Climate Change
      Animals Must be Sold
      Off Before they Starve

      Aug. 25, 2021 (NY Times Climate Forward), - Darrell Rice stood in a field of corn he’d planted in early June, to be harvested in the fall and chopped up to feed the hundreds of cows and calves he raises in central North Dakota.

      “It should be six, seven, eight foot tall,” he said, looking down at the stunted plants at his feet, their normally floppy leaves rolled tight against their stalks to conserve water in the summer heat.

    • • The Two Americas: One Parched, One Soaked
      This Map Tells the Story

      Aug. 24, 2021 (NY Times Climate Forward), - In New York City, a tropical storm delivered record-breaking rains this weekend. Heavy downpours caused devastating flash floods in central Tennessee, tearing apart houses and killing more than 20 people. Yet, California and much of the West remained in the deepest drought in at least two decades, the product of a long-term precipitation shortfall and temperatures that are much hotter than usual.

      This divide, a wetter East and a drier West, reflects a broader pattern observed in the United States in recent decades.

      Click now for the article and the detailed map.
    • • Rain falls on Greenland’s
      Snowy Summit For the First Time
      Yet Another Worrying
      Sign of the Climate Crisis

      Aug. 24, 2021 (ZME Science), -Precipitation at the summit of Greenland, about three kilometers above the sea level, fell as rain and not as snow for the first time since record-keeping began in 1950.

      Seven billion tons of water pelted the ice sheet for several hours, fueled by warm air. Temperatures at the summit rose above freezing for the third time in a decade, signaling severe trouble for Greenland.

    • • The Massive Extent of August’s Wildfires
      Satellite Images Show It in 3-D

      Aug. 23, 2021, (ZME Science)- It’s been a scorching summer, and it’s no coincidence. With climate change in almost full swing, the odds of heatwaves and fires increase dramatically — and we’re seeing the effects. The European Union’s Copernicus Observation Program has published a collage of just some of these fires, as seen from space. Here are some of them.

    • • Can Portland, Oregon, Stand Up to the Oil Industry?
      The City Positionself as a
      Climate Champion But Faces a Crucial Test

      Aug. 23, 2021 (Sierra Magazine), -In 2016, the city of Portland, Oregon, adopted a zoning ordinance that banned new fossil fuel storage facilities and terminals, a move that was viewed as groundbreaking climate policy at the time, aimed at halting the expansion of fossil fuels.

      In July 2020, Portland issued a 'climate emergency declaration,' another step that seemed to position the city at the forefront of the strengthening climate movement.

      This summer, Portland finally has the chance to put words into concrete action. A crucial land-use permit for an oil-by-rail facility within city limits needs the approval of the city government. A rejection would deal a devastating setback to what has become a substantial fossil fuel operation, potentially leading to its eventual shutdown.

    • • Climate Change and European Floods
      This Could Be a Repeating Event Each July

      Aug. 23, 2021 (ScienceNews), -Climate change has increased the likelihood of heavy downpours in Western Europe such as the July rains that led to devastating flash floods, researchers affiliated with the World Weather Attribution Network (WWAN) report August 23. Such extreme rains are 1.2 to 9 times more likely to happen — and those downpours are 3 to 19 percent heavier — as a result of human-caused climate change, the team found.

      WWAN conducts quick analyses of extreme events to assess the contribution of climate change. The new study focused on two regions where record-setting rains fell July 12–15 and triggered floods that killed more than 200 people.

    • • Oil Companies Can Sue Nations, But Not The Other Way Around
      Based on a 1950's Treaty -
      Long Overdue for Revision

      Aug. 23, 2021 (CleanTechnica), -There is only one way to prevent the Earth from becoming too hot for humans — leave all existing oil, gas, and coal deposits in the ground. If not, irreversible damage to the Earth’s environment will result and the human species will disappear the way the dinosaurs did millions of years ago. There will always be life on Earth, but it won’t include humans much longer, given the way things are going.

      The CleanTechnica community is well versed on this topic. We have exhaustively covered Greta Thunberg, IPCC 6, and the Extinction Rebellion. But what we have not covered until know is something called the Energy Charter Treaty, an international agreement that allows energy and mineral companies to sue the 57 signatory nations for damages if those countries in any way inhibit, restrict, diminish, or otherwise interfere with the companies’ ability to continue extracting natural resources. Conversely, those nations are barred from pressing any claim for damages against the companies.

    • • Higher Borrowing Costs and Climate Risk
      Western U.S. Severe
      Drought Does Affect Project Costs

      Aug. 23, 2021 (Bloomberg CityLab), -The extreme drought that has gripped much of the western United States has shriveled crops, stoked wildfires, and drained reservoirs across several states.

      According the U.S. Drought Monitor, more than 60 million people are currently living under drought conditions in the region. For some cities, lack of water could be a fiscal as well as an environmental disaster: Prolonged droughts are threatening the creditworthiness of local governments, utilities and irrigation districts.

    • • Youth Activists Speak Out
      This Is the World Being
      Left to Us by Adults

      Aug. 19, 2021 (NY Times Climate Forward),By Greta Thunberg, Adriana Calderón, Farzana Faruk Jhumu and Eric Njuguna -Last week, some of the world’s leading climate change scientists confirmed that humans are making irreversible changes to our planet and extreme weather will only become more severe. This news is a “code red for humanity,” said the United Nations secretary general.

      It is — but young people like us have been sounding this alarm for years. You just haven’t listened.

    • • Earth’s Hottest Month on Record
      We Just Lived Through it
      (At least Most of Us Did)

      Aug. 17, 2021 (ZME Science), -Around the globe, temperatures were scorching. The combined land and ocean surface temperature was 1.67 degrees F (0.93 of a degree C) above the 20th-century average, making this the hottest July since records began 142 years ago. It was 0.02 of a degree F (0.01 of a degree C) higher than the previous record (set in July 2016, and tied in 2019 and 2020).

      Several regional records were also set. Asia also had its hottest July on record (beating its 2010 record), while Europe had its second-hottest July on record. However, virtually all regions on the Earth had an all-time top-10 warmest July.

    • • U.S. Declares Shortage on Colorado River
      This Will Force Water
      Cuts for the First Time

      Aug. 16 , 2021 (NY Times Climate Forward), -With climate change and long-term drought continuing to take a toll on the Colorado River, the federal government on Monday for the first time declared a water shortage at Lake Mead, one of the river’s main reservoirs.

      The declaration triggers cuts in water supply that, for now, mostly will affect Arizona farmers. Beginning next year they will be cut off from much of the water they have relied on for decades. Much smaller reductions are mandated for Nevada and for Mexico across the southern border.

    • • The New Jersey Shore is Slowly Drowning
      Billions Have Been Spent to Protect
      the Beachfront, but Inch by Inch,
      Water is Winning the War

      Aug. 12 , 2021 (NY Times Climate Forward), -From a satellite’s point of view, New Jersey’s barrier islands barely register, like fine white bones pulled from a body of green, separated by a vascular tissue of wetlands and shallow bays.

      Twenty thousand years ago, when the Laurentide ice sheet covered much of Canada and the northern United States, the coast of what would be New Jersey reached to the edge of the continental shelf, nearly 100 miles east of the present shoreline. For the next 10,000 years, as the last ice age came to an end and the sea level rose by more than 300 feet, the New Jersey coastline moved steadily west...

      Click now to read or listen to the story.
    • • Does Smokey Bear Need a Makeover
      to Prevent More Wildfires?
      Some of the Traditions We Hold Dear May Have to be Rethought to Cope with a Future Full of Fire

      Aug. 12 , 2021 (National Geographic), -As the American West endures another record-breaking fire season, fueled in part by a historic drought, some scientists are urging Americans to rethink a few traditions they hold dear. Campfires and fireworks are two big ones. Smokey Bear is another.

      Three-quarters of a century after the blue-jeans-clad bear first pointed a finger at us— 'Only YOU can prevent forest fires,' he proclaimed—more than 80% of all wildfires in the U.S. are still ignited, accidentally or intentionally, by humans. Humans spark 97% of all wildfires that actually threaten homes, according to fire ecologist Jennifer Balch of the University of Colorado, Boulder, and Nathan Mietkiewicz of the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    • • Sicily Possibly Records Highest Temp in European History
      Reading at Monitoring Station
      in Syracuse Unverified but Comes
      Amid Heatwave in Last Few Days

      Aug. 11, 2021 (The Guardian), -The highest temperature in European history appears to have been recorded in Italy during a heatwave sweeping the country, with early reports suggesting a high of 48.8C (119.85F).

      If this is accepted by the World Meteorological Organization it will break the previous European record of 48C (118.4F) set in Athens in 1977. The temperature was measured at a monitoring station in Syracuse, Sicily, and confirmed soon after by the island’s meteorological authorities.

    • • IPCC Findings By Region
      From Droughts to Flooding,
      Every Region of the Planet
      is Experiencing Different
      Consequences from the Climate Crisis

      Aug. 11, 2021 (ZME Science) -In the new report, climate experts grouped under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) looked at the already visible and the upcoming climate effects, likely to soon aggravate as temperature rises.

      The report shows that emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities are responsible for approximately 1.1°C of warming since 1850-1900, and finds that averaged over the next 20 years, global temperature is expected to reach or exceed 1.5°C of warming. This is based on observational datasets to assess historical level of warming.

    • • 5 Takeaways from the Major New U.N. Climate Report
      The Burning of Fossil Fuels
      is Behind Rising Levels of
      Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere

      Aug. 9, 2021 (NY Times Climate Forward) -On Monday the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a scientific body convened by the United Nations, released a major new report concluding that the world cannot avoid some devastating impacts of climate change, but that there is still a narrow window to keep the devastation from getting even worse.

      The report, based on the analysis of more than 14,000 studies, is the clearest and most comprehensive summary yet of the physical science of climate change. It lays out what the climate was like in the past, what it’s like now and what it will be like for decades to come.

    • • How Hot the Planet Becomes is Up to Us
      A Hotter Future is Already Certain

      Aug. 9, 2021 (NY Times Climate Forward) -Nations have delayed curbing their fossil-fuel emissions for so long that they can no longer stop global warming from intensifying over the next 30 years, though there is still a short window to prevent the most harrowing future, a major new United Nations scientific report has concluded.

      Humans have already heated the planet by roughly 1.1 degrees Celsius, or 2 degrees Fahrenheit, since the 19th century, largely by burning coal, oil and gas for energy. And the consequences can be felt across the globe: This summer alone, blistering heat waves have killed hundreds of people in the United States and Canada, floods have devastated Germany and China, and wildfires have raged out of control in Siberia, Turkey and Greece.

      Click now to read or listen to this story.
    • • Developing Nations Pay the Highest Price for Climate Change
      Even Though They've
      Done Little to Cause it

      Aug. 9, 2021 (NY Times Climate Forward) -When some 200 scientists convened by the United Nations all but demanded on Monday that the nations immediately band together to cut emissions, they portrayed it as a brief window to avert the most catastrophic impacts of climate change.

      But as their call ricocheted around the planet, it only underscored the challenge ahead: getting the world’s biggest polluters and its most vulnerable countries to cooperate against a grave global threat.

    • • A New Window on Rising Seas
      NASA Provide this Data to the IPCC

      Aug. 9, 2021 (ENN Network) -NASA’s Sea Level Change Team has created a sea level projection tool that makes extensive data on future sea level rise from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) easily accessible to the public – and to everyone with a stake in planning for the changes to come.

      Pull up the tool’s layers of maps, click anywhere on the global ocean and coastlines, and pick any decade between 2020 and 2150: The tool, hosted on NASA’s Sea Level Portal, will deliver a detailed report for the location based on the projections in the IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report.

    • • The IPCC Climate Warnings
      What's In Store for
      Earth's Oceans and Ice

      Aug. 9, 2021 (THE CONVERSATION) -Humans are unequivocally warming the planet, and that’s triggering rapid changes in the atmosphere, oceans and polar regions, and increasing extreme weather around the world, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) warns in a new report.

      The IPCC released the first part of its much anticipated Sixth Assessment Report on Aug. 9, 2021. In it, 234 scientists from around the globe summarized the current climate research on how the Earth is changing as temperatures rise and what those changes will mean for the future.

    • • Methane: The New Big Enemy in the Climate Change Battle
      This According to the IPCC

      Aug. 9, 2021 (GIZMODO) -The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is ringing its first serious alarm bell on the role methane emissions play in climate change.

      Hundreds of scientists said in the latest IPCC report, published on Monday, that methane emissions in the atmosphere are at their highest levels in hundreds of thousands of years, thanks to human activity.

      In order to stave off the worst impacts of climate change and to start ramping down warming now, the report says, countries need to figure out ways to make “strong, rapid and sustained reductions” in methane emissions—in addition to ramping down CO2.

    • • Making Extreme Heat Less Deadly
      Record-Breaking June Heat Wave in the Pacific Northwest Prompts Officials to Act

      Aug. 9, 2021 (Bloomberg CityLab) -A growing number of governments and policymakers are adopting strategies to limit the threat of extreme heat after record-breaking temperatures killed hundreds in North America in recent months, even in regions known for cool weather.

    • • The California Tourist Town that’s Running Out of Water
      Sorry, Mendocino

      Aug. 8, 2021 (The Guardian) -Lush Mendocino draws nearly 2m visitors a year. But drought is threatening to sink its key industry.

      On many mornings, the village of Mendocino vanishes into a thick white fog that covers its seaside cliffs, redwood trees and quaint Victorian houses.

      Carved into California’s northern coast, the historic hamlet’s rugged beaches, scenic hikes, charming bed-and-breakfasts and boutique galleries draw in 1.8m visitors each year.

    • • Lake Powell Dips to Historic Low
      This Puts Recreation at Risk

      Aug. 8, 2021 (Herald-Tribune) -A thick, white band of newly exposed rock face stretches high above boaters’ heads at Lake Powell, creating a sharp contrast against the famous red desert terrain as their vessels weave through tight canyons that were once underwater.

      It’s a stark reminder of how far the water level has fallen at the massive reservoir on the Utah-Arizona border. Just last year, it was more than 50 feet higher. Now, the level at the popular destination for houseboat vacations is at a historic low amid a climate change-fueled megadrought engulfing the U.S. West.

    • • Athens Has Been Besieged by Fire
      The City is Surrounded by Flames

      Aug. 7, 2021 (The Guardian), by Helena Smith -Little had prepared any of us on the Athens-bound flight for the sight of the great fire-induced clouds that swept either side of the plane as it made its descent on Friday.

      News of the extreme heat engulfing Greece had spread beyond its borders all week, packaged in increasingly desperate language. Temperatures were breaking records few had ever imagined. If Monday was bad, then Tuesday was worse. In some parts of the country, the mercury had hit 47C (117F), with thermal cameras on drones recording the ground temperature in downtown Athens at 55C.

    • • Cooling People Down—Without Electricity
      What If There Were a Way to
      Cool Without Making Warming Worse?

      Aug. 5, 2021, (National Geographic)-Air-conditioning accounts for about a quarter of Arizonans’ energy use, more than four times the national average. And it’s not a luxury. Without air conditioning, summer heat in Phoenix can be fatal. Last year, Maricopa County recorded 323 heat-related deaths—a record for the county. “We've had the highest number we've ever seen several years in a row,” says Sunenshine. The county is currently on track to exceed last year’s toll.

      For the answer, read the article.

    • • Ask What Biochar Can Do for the Planet
      It Can Keep Climate Change at
      Bay and More Food on the Table

      Aug. 5, 2021 (ZME Science) -Coal is naturally produced underground, over millions of years, from ancient biomass. This organic matter that got buried in some way or another was then compressed and heated up through geological processes, which broke down its original structure and increased its carbon content. Biochar is produced in a very similar way, but instead of letting natural (and slow) geological processes cook it up, we make it ourselves.

      This material can help fertilize soils and, thus, increase crop yields. At the same time, by preventing the carbon within it from being released back into the atmosphere, the use of biochar in agriculture can help fight climate change.

    • • Facebook Let Fossil-Fuel Industry Push Climate Misinformation
      Petroleum Giants Accused of Gaming
      Facebook to Promote Oil and Gas
      as Part of Climate-Crisis Solution

      Aug. 5, 2021 (The Guardian) -Facebook failed to enforce its own rules to curb an oil and gas industry misinformation campaign over the climate crisis during last year’s presidential election, according to a new analysis released on Thursday.

      The report, by the London-based thinktank InfluenceMap>, identified an increase in advertising on the social media site by ExxonMobil and other fossil-fuel companies aimed at shaping the political debate about policies to address global heating.

    • • It's Not Just the Heat, It's the Methane
      Siberian Heatwave is Releasing
      Methane Trapped in the Rocks

      Aug. 4, 2021 (ZME Science) -A record 2020 heatwave triggered the release of fossil methane gas leaked from known rock formations in Siberia. Since methane is a potent greenhouse gas itself, researchers fear this could be part of a climate feedback loop: where more heat triggers more greenhouse gas emissions and even more heat.

      Methane is the second most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2). It’s 25 times as potent as CO2 at trapping heat in the atmosphere and over the last two decades, its concentration has more than doubled. Most of this has come from fossil fuels (especially coal), cattle, rice paddies, and waste dumps.

    • • How Indigenous Knowledge Can Help Combat Climate Change
      Indigenous Communities Have a Wealth of
      Knowledge that Can Make Climate Change
      Mitigation and Adaptation More Effective

      Aug. 4, 2021 (Climate Reality Project), - In mainstream Western culture, Indigenous peoples are often seen as stewards and custodians of the environment. With an estimated worldwide population of 370 million across 70 countries, each group possesses different histories, cultures, and traditions. So, with such an incredibly diverse makeup, where does this association come from?

      In part, this association comes from the knowledge that many Indigenous communities have developed through centuries of interaction with their surrounding environments. And that knowledge can be a hugely beneficial when it comes to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

    • • Greenland Heatwave Triggers Extreme Melting
      Enough to Cover Florida with 2" of Water

      Aug. 3, 2021 (ZME Science) -A group of Danish researchers found that the Greenland ice sheet experienced a “massive melting event” last week during a heatwave that brought temperatures more than 20 degrees Celsius above seasonal norms. The ice sheet has melted by about eight billion tons a day, which is about twice the normal average rate seen during summer, they found.

    • • Boulder County Sues Exxon & Suncor
      They Must Pay For Climate Related Losses

      Aug. 3, 2021 (CleanTechnica) -We hear a lot about forest fires in California, but other western states have been devastated by those roaring infernos in the past few years as well. Colorado is one of them. Flooding has become an issue recently also.

      Micah Parkin moved to Boulder from New Orleans after it was devastated by Hurricane Katrina. “We decided to move to higher ground knowing hurricanes are getting more intense, sea levels are rising,” she tells The Guardian. Parkin is the founder of an environmental coalition called 350 Colorado.

    • • Greece's Latest Climate Emergency
      Emergency Measures Are Ordered

      Aug. 2, 2021 (ZME Science)-If this year hadn’t been marked so deeply by the pandemic, it might have remained in history as the year of wildfires. Countries in southern Europe are now also taking measures to prevent such events from sparking up along their borders, as a body of hot air coming from Africa is causing heatwaves across the area. This heatwave is expected to last more than a week.

      Against this background, Greek authorities have ordered additional fire patrols and emergency efforts to create air-conditioned areas for workers, the public, and refugees. Still, this is all complicated by limits and measures imposed to control the pandemic.

    • • UK’s Net Zero Timeline Goal is Not Realistic
      Allegra Stratton Says the
      Timing is Much Too Late

      Aug. 1, 2021 (The Guardian) -The UK’s goal of tackling the climate crisis by reducing carbon emissions to net zero by 2050 is “too far away”, the prime minister’s climate change spokesperson has said.

      Allegra Stratton, Boris Johnson’s former press secretary, said the “science is clear” that the UK must change its carbon emission output “right now”.

    • • Turkish Fires Are the Hottest on Record
      Thousands of Holidaymakers Evacuated
      from Aegean Sea Resorts as
      Country Fights More than 50 Blazes

      July 30, 2021 (The Guardian) -The heat intensity of wildfires in Turkey on Thursday was four times higher than anything on record for the nation, according to satellite data passed on to the Guardian.

      At least four people were killed by blazes that swept through the tourist regions of Antalya and Mu?la, forcing thousands of holidaymakers to be evacuated from their hotels by a flotilla of boats.

    • • Not Even a 20-foot Sea Wall Will Save Miami
      But living Structures Can Help Protect the Coast and Keep the Paradise Vibe

      July 28, 2021 (THE CONVERSATION) -Miami is all about the water and living life outdoors. Walking paths and parks line large stretches of downtown waterfront with a stunning bay view.

      This downtown core is where the Army Corps of Engineers plans to build a US$6 billion sea wall, 20 feet high in places, through downtown neighborhoods and right between the Brickell district’s high-rises and the bay.

      But there's a big but...

    • • Bats Are Now Threatened by Climate Change
      What This Will Mean

      July 28, 2021 (The Revelator) -The Isabelline Serotine bat (Eptesicus isabellinus) ranges across areas north of the Sahara and into the southern portion of the Iberian Peninsula. But it may be time for the species to start packing its bags.

      A new study in Global Ecology and Conservation found that dozens of bat species living in parts of the world predicted to get hotter and drier with climate change will need to shift their ranges to find suitable habitat. For Isabelline Serotine bats that could mean a big move — more than 1,000 miles, the researchers determined.

    • • Major Newspaper Editorials Urge Adoption of Carbon Price
      These Include the Washington Post
      and the Houston Chronicle

      July 28, 2021 (Citizen’s Climate Lobby) - Recent editorials in two major newspapers are calling on Congress and the Biden administration to include carbon pricing in upcoming legislation to address climate change. The policy endorsements came from the Houston Chronicle and the Washington Post, both of which cited Europe’s ambitious climate plans — including a carbon border adjustment — as motivation for the U.S. to price carbon.

      Senate Democrats just rolled out a budget resolution for $3.5 trillion in spending that includes measures to address climate change. Democrats hope to pass the bill through the budget reconciliation process, which requires a simple majority of votes. Not yet included in the budget is a price on carbon, an omission the Chronicle and the Post find glaring.

    • • Coastal Landfills Are No Match for Rising Seas
      Landfills Along US Coasts are
      Ticking Environmental Time Bombs

      July 28, 2021 (The Nation) -Fae Saulenas knows that before long she’ll have to abandon the place she’s called home for decades. Nestled by a coastal wetland north of Boston called the Rumney Marsh Reservation, her house is a short walk from the Atlantic Ocean. In recent years, thanks in part to the climate emergency, king tides and storm surges have flooded her property. Saulenas has made peace with the fact that one day the floods will force her to leave.

    • • The Truth Behind Corporate Climate Pledges
      Due to Their Contribution to the
      Climate Emergency, Companies are Announcing a Record Number of Pledges

      July 26, 2021 (The Guardian) -For climate campaigners, 26 May seemed like the start of a long-awaited reckoning for oil and gas companies.

      Over a single 24-hour period, a Dutch court ordered Shell to dramatically cut emissions, shareholders voted to force Chevron to reduce emissions from the products it sells, and a tiny activist investment firm secured three positions on ExxonMobil’s 12-member board for candidates committed to climate action.

    • • Evidence From the Bootleg Fire Supports Thinning Forests
      A Story From Oregon Offers Lessons
      For a Dried-Out, Overheated West

      July 26, 2021 (Grist - As the Bootleg Fire in southern Oregon swept toward him last week, Pete Caligiuri of The Nature Conservancy hustled to lay out water pipes and start the sprinklers to wet down the area surrounding a remote research station. The approaching wildfire had raged so fiercely that it had begun generating its own weather. Clouds of hot smoke formed towering thunderheads, which cast lighting down among the dry trees and urged the flames forward with gusts.

    • • ‘Green Steel’: The Next Big Thing in Australian Industry
      Using Coal to Make Steel
      is B-a-a-a-d For the Environment

      July 26, 2021 (National Geographic -Steel is a major building block of our modern world, used to make everything from cutlery to bridges and wind turbines. But the way it’s made – using coal – is making climate change worse.

      On average, almost two tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO?) are emitted for every tonne of steel produced. This accounts for about 7% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Cleaning up steel production is clearly key to Earth’s low-carbon future.

  • Flooding in Charleston, SC and the Remedy
  • Climate Crisis Turns World’s Subways Into Flood Zones
  • Death Toll Rises and Thousands Flee Homes as Floods Hit China
  • Climate Change Comes for Rich Countries
  • Disasters Spiral, Cities Confront Need for Climate Adaptation
  • A French Approach to Tackling the Climate Crisis
  • Climate Change and Flood Risks are Related
  • Politicians From Across World Call For ‘Global Green Deal’
  • Developing Countries Urge For Real Climate Action Before Crucial Summit
  • Climate Scientists Shocked by Scale of Floods in Germany
  • Germany's Death Toll Rises from Catastrophic Flooding
  • Europe Unveils Plan to Shift From Fossil Fuels
  • Back Arrow
  • Record Heat Threatens Arizona's Salt River
  • Changes in Moon’s ‘Wobble’ Could Cause Record Floods in 2030
  • Hurricanes: Not More Frequent, but More Dangerous
  • Protect the Trees We Have to Fight Climate Change
  • Heat Wave Killed Marine Wildlife en Masse
  • Why Record-Breaking Overnight Temperatures Are So Concerning
  • Western Heat Wave’s Extreme Records
  • A Battle Between a Great City and a Great Lake
  • North America's Hottest June on Record
  • Lapland Records It's Hottest Day Since 1914
  • Sixty Years of Climate Change Warnings Were Ignored
  • Will Campers Be Able to Beat the Heat?
  • Can Summer Campers Beat the Heat
  • Yellowstone’s Most Famous Geyser Could Shut Down
  • Miami Condo Collapse Highlights Urgent Need to Adapt to Rising Seas
  • Underwater Robot May Unearth Climate Mysteries
  • Climate Change Threatens Arctic Roads and Runways
  • Can We Spray the Heat Away?
  • Heat Pumps Could be the Answer to Heat Waves
  • How a Canadian Small Town Became One of Earth's Hottest Places
  • • Closing the Los Angeles Tree Equity Divide
    Tree Canopies Could Provide
    Protection from Dangerous Temperatures

    July 19, 2021 (The Revelator) -As heat wave after heat wave scorches the West this summer, it may feel like there’s no escape from the record-breaking temperatures. But mounting research shows one way to help beat the heat: Urban communities with more tree cover fare much better than those that lack a green canopy.

    This lack of “tree equity” strongly correlates with race and income. A study of more than 3,000 communities across the United States determined that poor communities with a majority of people of color tend to have less green infrastructure and fewer trees than well-to-do, white areas.

  • Causes and Consequences

    Click on a subject for more information.

  • Meat Consumption
  • CO2 Pollution
  • Concrete's Footprint
  • Deforestation
  • Ice Meltdown
  • Poor Regulation
  • Population Growth
  • Sea-Level Rise
  • Approaches

    Click on a subject for more information.

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    Climate Change in Your City's Future

    Using the Calculator
    (click the image for more)

    The free to download ESD Research app was developed by EarthSystemData together with the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change at East Anglia University. It’s being launched the same week the United Nations COP26 climate conference was supposed to start in Scotland (which has been postponed until next year due to the coronavirus pandemic).

    The simulations allow users to see what their city would look like in 2100 if global warming is limited to below 2ºC, which is the goal of the Paris Agreement from 2015. Then, as a second scenario, it shows the results of a “moderate” emissions reduction, with global temperatures reaching about 4ºC in 2100.

    Using it is pretty straightforward. You go into the app, type in the location you want to look at and then the app shows simulations of the current climate and projections of the future with the two possible scenarios. ESD Research is already available to download for free in the Apple Store and in Google Play.

    The researchers at Tyndall said that many cities are predicted to warm by approximately the same as the planet average by the end of the century — both in the low CO2 emissions and the moderate CO2 emissions projections. The warming in the Arctic could be more than double or more the planetary average increase in temperature.

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